Which shall it be? Do you know the difference, and in a pinch, would you be able to identify it in a moving horse? Better yet, can you feel the difference when you are riding?
We use these words all the time. We "frame" our horse, we get him to "round" and we regularly work on "collection". But often, although we're sure we are working on something, we don't really know what to call it. We throw the words around randomly, seeking to describe the feeling we know exists, but not knowing the nuances between the three.
To be perfectly honest, most of our horses are rarely, if ever, collected.
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These words are not interchangeable.
The three terms are distinct in meaning, appearance and feel. Knowing the difference between them helps you to distinguish between the level of engagement your horse is working at.
Simply put, a horse is "framed up" when it is travelling in a pre-determined outline.
There may be the high frame, which essentially means that the neck is higher than the withers, and there may be the level frame, where the neck is at the height of the withers. In either case, the frame is usually being held in place by rein action (the hands). In comparison to no frame at all, riding in a frame might feel more comfortable and easier on both the rider and the horse.
The dilemma is that regardless of the placement of the head and neck, the back continues to be hollow and the hind end is disengaged. The horse moves on the forehand. The hind legs do not track up to the front footprints, and the front legs stride larger than the hind legs. Often, this body position is held in place by the hands. There is little or no release of the reins and the frame is being protected by a backward pressure that traps the horse's front end and restricts the hind end.
The best giveaway to a frame is that the horse falls out of the frame - either farther forward on the forehand, or the head and neck arches up and the back hollows even more. The claim to fame of the frame is that it does not maintain itself without either constant pressure from the hands, or momentary "jerks" on the mouth to communicate to the horse that it should keep its posture in place.
Typically, horses in collection move up and down more than forward, so collection is desired especially in events such as reining, western trail and dressage.
In dressage, collection is the highest level of training for the horse. In other words, travelling while collected is difficult and requires a sophisticated level of balance, mental/emotional control, and understanding from the horse. The collected horse has developed the strength to tilt the haunches so the hind legs are far underneath the body, and the front end (head and neck included) are at the highest point. The horse moves in an "uphill" manner.
Collection is achieved primarily by the seat and legs. The hands are the last to act, and ideally, serve to "catch and recycle" the energy produced by the seat and legs. The horse is not kept in place - the collected appearance is the result of the activity of the hind end. Let go of both reins, and the horse should stay in collection for several strides.
"Collection itself, however, is a state attained only after many years of patient, systematic, gymnastic work, which is made evident in a shorter, higher, rounder, more active stride. It is to be attained solely through greater balancing of the horse on the hindquarters, based on forward impulse - and not merely by shortening up the horse from the front. The horse's motion must remain forward, fluid, and energetic, and must always continue to show the correct footfall in all gaits. The hallmark of true collection is a clear lowering of the croup, brought about by the deeply bent, engaged haunches that carry more weight." (Herbermann, 1999, p.67)
To be perfectly honest, most of our horses are rarely, if ever, collected. Much of the time, we are working in a degree of roundness - whether more or less round - rather than in collection.
All this talk begs the question:
Herbermann, E., (1999). Dressage Formula, Third Ed., J.A.Allen, London. p.67
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